You have asked me, Lucilius, why, if a Providence rules the world, it still happens that many evils befall good men. This would be more fittingly answered in a coherent work designed to prove that a Providence does preside over the universe, and that God concerns himself with us. But since it is your wish that a part be severed from the whole, and that I refute a single objection while the main question is left untouched, I shall do so; the task is not difficult, - I shall be pleading the cause of the gods.
This feeling, referred to as "phantom pain" or "stump hallucination", is a frustrating sensation to an amputee. For some amputees, these phantom sensations may be no more than painless distractions of pressure, warmth, and cold that do not interfere with their everyday lives.
Some patients have even reported having phantom pleasures; an "orgasmic" feeling in a missing limb. These episodes are severe enough to interfere with work, sleep and normal function, and do require some kind of treatment. Phantom pain can occur anytime, from immediately after an amputation to several years later.
The powerful impression of a stable, intact self is taken for granted.
But, it's a perception that's possible only because of the body image created by the brain. A significant part of that image is a mental map of the body surface generated by the cerebral cortex using the sensory signals it receives from the skin.
Other regions of the cortex control other components, such as the position of muscles and joints, the intention to move, and also the visual viewing of the body's movements New Scientist.
Unfortunately, the brain's idea of its body can be distorted by the amputation of a limb. Since there is no visual feedback, initiating motor intention does not activate proprioreceptors Harris.
Over time, phantom limbs can be felt by the amputee to be overflexed, which causes a cramping pain. Based on this information, one of the most common questions is "if the inconsistency between the intention of the brain and the perception of the body's actions was to be resolved, could the phantom pain also be eliminated"?
Several theories have been developed over the years that have attempted to answer this question, most notably by Ronald Melzack and Vilayanur Ramachandran. The earliest hypothesis regarding the cause of phantom limbs and pain was based on the blame of neuromas.
These are nodules comprised of remaining nerves located at the end of the stump. According to the theory, neuromas seemingly continued to generate impulses that traveled up the spinal cord to portions of the thalamus and somatosensory domains of the cortex.
As a result, treatment involved cutting the nerves just above the neuroma in an attempt to interrupt signaling at each somatosensory level Journal of Neurology. This and other related theories were not accepted with complete satisfaction because of the fact that the phantom pain always returned, indicating that there was a more complex reason.
Psychologist Ronald Melzack developed the concept of the neuromatrix and the neurosignature. This idea claimed that the brain contained a neuromatrix or a network of neurons that analyzed the sensory information and allowed the perception of feeling Macalester.
Then the neurosignature, which consisted of the three primary neural pathways from the thalamus to the somatosensory cortex, from the reticular formation of brain stem to limbic system, and the parietal lobes was activated and informed the brain that the detection of sensation was from itself.
He also stated that the neuromatrix, which was essentially a brain map of the body, was pre-wired by genetics. Melzack pointed to his research that showed that people born without a limb could also experience phantom pain Phantom limbs.
He proposed that the brain was predisposed to believe that all of its limbs existed, so it sent out an output signal to the body through the neural pathways in the neuromatrix. Because there was no limb, the brain acquired no sensory feedback.
When failed attempts increased the intensity of its signals, the phantom pain was induced. These findings led Melzack to believe that "the body we perceive is in large part built into our brain-it's not entirely learned.
In fact, you do not need the body to feel the body" Phantom limbs. Other researchers, such as Vilayanur Ramachandran had other answers to the question of phantom pain etiology.
He was inspired by previous experiments by Michael Merzenich that had studied the homunculus blueprint representation of the entire body surface, which identifies the locations of sensations felt on the skin of monkeys.
In these experiments, the sensory nerves in the arms of a group of monkeys were severed. It was found that despite the lack of sensory input from the arm, the arm region of the body map in the cortex hadn't gone silent. Instead, signals from the face next door on the map had taken over for the phantom arm New Scientist.
They concluded that there were existing axon branches that become unmasked when normal input had disappeared Macalester.Goose island matilda descriptive essay simon beale proquest digital dissertations analysis of the raven essays on friendship the guardian environment pollution essayThe island athol fugard essays about life climate change argumentative essay goodfellas movie analysis essay simple research paper powerpoint cjedilo za argumentative essay usancen beispiel essay ecfs admissions essay essay about.
Your daily dose of cryptids, eyewitness encounters, paranormal activity, alien beings, UFOs the best in alternative and cryptozoology news.
Books by Martin Amis, Present. All titles linked to Random House; click here for the Amis author page at Random House UK, which features excerpts and "mini-sites" for select novels.
Also see the Excerpts page of this website for rarities such as Amis's first play and selections from Invasion of the Space Invaders -- plus selections from many of the novels. In folklore, a ghost (sometimes known as an apparition, haunt, phantom, poltergeist, shade, specter or spectre, spirit, spook, and wraith) is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living.
In ghostlore, descriptions of ghosts vary widely from an invisible presence to translucent or barely visible wispy shapes, to realistic, lifelike visions. Phantom limb pain Short essay on phantom limb pain by neurologist Jonathan Cole (see the Living Without Kinesthesis essay).
Phantom Limbs: The Ramachandran Method This page is for practitioners of “neurolinguistic programming,” which might sound a bit odd but the information is fascinating. Abstract Phantom limb pain is a common symptom experienced by over 90% of amputees.
It’s defined as a painful sensation from a part of the body that no longer exists. There are a variety of methods for treating this neuropathic pain, but at the moment there is no specific treatment to tackle the pain .