He worked with stone, bronze, wood, clay, stucco and wax, and had several assistants, with four perhaps being a typical number.
The intense violence of the slaying, the lack of decorative details and even Judith's stiff parallel arms are all reliant on Caravaggio.
Elsheimer's small copper may have influenced the position of Holofernes' body and legs, although it should be noted that Artemisia's canvas has been cut down on the left and his legs are now missing.
Other expressive and compositional elements can be related to the work of her father Orazio, especially his Judith and Her Maidservant Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford.
The youthful appearance and important co-conspiratorial role given to the maidservant Abra as well as the triangular structure are derived from Orazio's Hartford canvas.
Artemisia's Judith has such close affinities with her father's work that a number of scholars have argued for Orazio's authorship. It has been suggested that Artemisia's Judith Beheading Holofernes Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence was essentially a fancy-dress copy of her father's earlier work and not an independent rethinking of the Naples composition.
X-radiographs of the Naples picture reveal a substantial number of changes, which make it highly unlikely that the picture was a repetition of another composition. Furthermore, the quality of the execution is not high enough to be that of Orazio; nor did Orazio ever seek this level of brutal directness.
The simplification of the drapery and lack of decorative embellishment are consistent with other pictures painted during Artemisia's first Roman period.
A number of copies show the composition before it was cut down.
This may imply that both originals were in the same collection and that both were by Orazio, but it could also mean that the patron wanted a 'diptych' by father and daughter.
Suggested listening streaming mp3, 17 minutes:The first version of Judith and Holofernes dates to this time in her life. Many scholars argue that Judith is an alter ego for Gentileschi during a time when she had no way of protecting herself.
Many scholars argue that Judith is an alter ego for Gentileschi during a time when she had no way of protecting herself. The story of Judith and Holofernes was very popular and had been represented in paintings and engravings since the middle ages. What changes in some of these representations is the meaning attributed to the story, the degree of violence depicted in the work, and the way Judith is depicted.
Judith, whose name translates from the Hebrew as “Jewess” or “Praised,” was a widow of noble rank living in the Jewish city of Bethulia during 6th century B.C.E. During the time when the city was under attack by the Assyrian army headed by Holofernes, Judith is said to have devised a plan to reclaim her land for her people.
Judith Slaying Holofernes (Naples version) c. Oil on canvas. m by m. Museo di Capolodimonte, Naples.
his is a dramatic and brutally graphic version of this biblical scene, but less so than a larger and even bloodier setting by Artemisia around Dec 12, · A visitor takes a photo of Judith Slaying Holofernes by Italian 17th century artist Artemisia Gentileschi, on display at Rome's Palazzo Braschi museum.
The "Artemisia Gentileschi and Her . The Uffizi Judith Slaying Holofernes is Artemisia’s second telling of this narrative.
The first, executed in Rome c. and now in the Capodimonte Museum in Naples (below, left), introduced the dynamic composition centered on the thrust and counter thrust of extended limbs.