History[ edit ] Henrik Syse argues that global ethics and international justice in western tradition is part of the tradition of natural law. It has been organized and taught within Western culture since Latin times of Middle Stoa and Cicero and the early Christian philosophers Ambrose and Augustine. Per Syse "This early natural-law theorizing teaching centered around the idea of a ius naturale, i. On this account, people have obligations of justice only to other people with whom they live together under a common constitution, or whom they recognize as belonging to the same nation as themselves.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle Frenchbut there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages, generally. By the end of World War IIracism had acquired the same supremacist connotations formerly associated with racialism: The term "race hatred" had also been used by sociologist Frederick Hertz in the late s.
As its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is relatively recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazismwhich saw "race" as a naturally given political unit.
Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not easily fall under a single definition and they also argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas.
First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups; second, a set of ideas an ideology about racial differences; and, third, discriminatory actions practices. The UDHR recognizes that if people are to be treated with dignity, they require economic rightssocial rights including educationand the rights to cultural and political participation and civil liberty.
It further states that everyone is entitled to these rights "without distinction of any kind, such as race, coloursexlanguagereligionpolitical or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. According to the UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, descentor national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.
They are born equal in dignity and rights and all form an integral part of humanity. Sociology of race and ethnic relations Sociologistsin general, recognize "race" as a social construct. This means that, although the concepts of race and racism are based on observable biological characteristics, any conclusions drawn about race on the basis of those observations are heavily influenced by cultural ideologies.
Racism, as an ideology, exists in a society at both the individual and institutional level.
While much of the research and work on racism during the last half-century or so has concentrated on "white racism" in the Western world, historical accounts of race-based social practices can be found across the globe.
In studies of these majority white societies, the aggregate of material and cultural advantages is usually termed " white privilege ". Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics. Much of the sociological literature focuses on white racism. Some of the earliest sociological works on racism were penned by sociologist W.
Du Bois wrote, "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line. The "newer" more hidden and less easily detectable forms of racism—which can be considered embedded in social processes and structures—are more difficult to explore as well as challenge.Global justice is an issue in political philosophy arising from the concern about unfairness.
It is sometimes understood as aform of internationalism. The University of Texas at Austin’s undergraduate admissions system offers admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their Texas high school .
If, as the saying goes, insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, expecting a different result, then hoping against hope that this time an officer who shot a black man in cold blood would be held to account, is a type of insanity most profound.
That said, many activists, politicians, journalists, and academics have used half-truths and outright falsehoods about racial issues that divide people and stir up hatred.
Western Theories of Justice. Justice is one of the most important moral and political concepts.
The word comes from the Latin jus, meaning right or law. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the “just” person as one who typically “does what is morally right” and is disposed to “giving everyone his or her due,” offering the word “fair” as a synonym.
Racial disparity in the Criminal Justice system has been a issue of discussion in our law enforcement for years. Statistics say the likelihood of imprisonment in a lifetime is 1 in 3 black men, 1 in 6 Latino men and 1 in 17 white men.