Using the TRIZ Method for Creative Problem Solving Drawing the Decision Trees The decision tree starts with a small square that has branches, and each branch represents the available decision that needs to be considered during the decision-making process. Then, each of the branches can include more sub-branches based on the different choices that are available based on each decision branch. At the end of the branches, we tend to draw uncertainty lines that represent the expected outcomes from each branch. In the below example, we assume that we need to make a decision of creating an advertising campaign for a television advertisement.
Readings in Educational Psychology Educational Psychology Interactive Abstract Improving individuals' and groups' abilities to solve problems and make decisions is recognized as an important issue in education, industry, and government.
Recent research has identified a prescriptive model of problem solving, although there is less agreement as to appropriate techniques.
Separate research on personality and cognitive styles has identified important individual differences in how people approach and solve problems and make decisions.
This paper relates a model of the problem-solving process to Jung's theory of personality types as measured by the MBTI and identifies specific techniques to support individual differences. The recent transition to the information age has focused attention on the processes of problem solving and decision making and their improvement e.
In fact, Gagneconsiders the strategies used in these processes to be a primary outcome of modern education.
There is concurrent and parallel research on personality and cognitive styles that describes individuals' preferred patterns for approaching problems and decisions and their utilization of specific skills required by these processes e.
Researchers have studied the relationship between personality characteristics and problem-solving strategies e. One conclusion that may be drawn from these investigations is that individual differences in problem solving and decision making must be considered to adequately understand the dynamics of these processes Stice, Attention must be paid to both the problem-solving process and the specific techniques associated with important personal characteristics.
That is, individuals and organizations must have a problem-solving process as well as specific techniques congruent with individual styles if they are to capitalize on these areas of current research.
McCaulley attempted to do this by first focusing on individual differences in personality and then by presenting four steps for problem solving based on Jung's four mental processes sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling.
Another strategy would be to consider first the problem-solving process and then to integrate individual preferences or patterns within this process.
This second strategy is the perspective of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to relate a model of the problem-solving process to a theory of personality type and temperaments in order to facilitate problem solving by focusing on important individual differences.
The integrated process is applicable to a variety of individual and group situations. Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Process Problem solving is a process in which we perceive and resolve a gap between a present situation and a desired goal, with the path to the goal blocked by known or unknown obstacles.
In general, the situation is one not previously encountered, or where at least a specific solution from past experiences is not known.
In contrast, decision making is a selection process where one of two or more possible solutions is chosen to reach a desired goal.
The steps in both problem solving and decision making are quite similar. In fact, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Most models of problem solving and decision making include at least four phases e. Each phase of the process includes specific steps to be completed before moving to the next phase.
These steps will be discussed in greater detail later in this paper. Consideration of Individual Differences Although there are a variety of ways to consider individual differences relative to problem solving and decision making, this paper will focus on personality type and temperament as measured by the MBTI.
Personality Type and Problem Solving Researchers have investigated the relationship of Jung's theory of individuals' preferences and their approach to problem solving and decision making e. The following is a summary of their findings. When solving problems, individuals preferring introversion will want to take time to think and clarify their ideas before they begin talking, while those preferring extraversion will want to talk through their ideas in order to clarify them.
In addition, Is will more likely be concerned with their own understanding of important concepts and ideas, while Es will continually seek feedback from the environment about the viability of their ideas.
Sensing individuals will be more likely to pay attention to facts, details, and reality. They will also tend to select standard solutions that have worked in the past.
Persons with intuition preferences, on the other hand, will more likely attend to the meaningfulness of the facts, the relationships among the facts, and the possibilities of future events that can be imagined from these facts.
They will exhibit a tendency to develop new, original solutions rather than to use what has worked previously. Individuals with a thinking preference will tend to use logic and analysis during problem solving.
They are also likely to value objectivity and to be impersonal in drawing conclusions. By contrast, individuals with a feeling preference are more likely to consider values and feelings in the problem-solving process.
They will tend to be subjective in their decision making and to consider how their decisions could affect other people.
The final dimension to be considered describes an individual's preference for either judging using T or F or perceiving using S or N.
Js are more likely to prefer structure and organization and will want the problem-solving process to demonstrate closure.The following will show the relationship between decision making and critical thinking and how one company uses critical thinking in its decision making everyday to maintain the company’s health and customer satisfaction.
Relationship Between Critical Thinking and Decision Making In the corporate environment critical decisions must be made, sometimes quickly, whether because of changes in market conditions, corporate profits, or corporate performances.
Facione, PA, “Critical Thinking: What It is and Why it Counts ” update Page 2 their own futures and become contributing members of society, rather than burdens on.
Relationship Between Critical Thinking and Decision Making In the corporate environment critical decisions must be made, sometimes quickly, whether because of changes in market conditions, corporate profits, or corporate performances. Learn how to be an inventive, logical decision maker by understanding the principles behind critical thinking and the tools used to consistently identify and select the best decision .
In relation to the acquisition of critical thinking skills, metacognition refers to what a learner knows about his or her thinking processes (conscious awareness) and the ability to control these processes by planning, choosing, and monitoring.