Summative Assessment Formative assessment is designed to assist the learning process by providing feedback to the learner, which can be used to identify strengths and weakness and hence improve future performance.
Introduction In general, metacognition is thinking about thinking. If students are aware of how committed or uncommitted they are to reaching goals, of how strong or weak is their disposition to persist, and of how focused or wandering is their attention to a thinking or writing task, they can regulate their commitment, disposition, and attention Marzano et al.
For example, if students were aware of a lack of commitment to writing a long research assignment, noticed that they were procrastinating, and were aware that they were distracted by more appealing ways to spend their time, they could then take action to get started on the assignment.
But until they are aware of their procrastination and take control by making a plan for doing the assignment, they will blissfully continue to neglect the assignment. Metacognition and Three Types of Knowledge To increase their metacognitive abilities, students need to possess and be aware of three kinds of content knowledge: Declarative knowledge is the factual information that one knows; it can be declared—spoken or written.
Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something, of how to perform the steps in a process; for example, knowing the mass of an object and its rate of speed and how to do the calculation. Conditional knowledge is knowledge about when to use a procedure, skill, or strategy and when not to use it; why a procedure works and under what conditions; and why one procedure is better than another.
For example, students need to recognize that an exam word problem requires the calculation of momentum as part of its solution.
This notion of three kinds of knowledge applies to learning strategies as well as course content. When they study, students need the declarative knowledge that 1 all reading assignments are not alike; for example, that a history textbook chapter with factual information differs from a primary historical document, which is different from an article interpreting or analyzing that document.
They need to know that stories and novels differ from arguments. Furthermore they need to know that there are different kinds of note taking strategies useful for annotating these different types of texts.
And 2 students need to know how to actually write different kinds of notes procedural knowledgeand 3 they need to know when to apply these kinds of notes when they study conditional knowledge. Knowledge of study strategies is among the kinds of metacognitive knowledge, and it too requires awareness of all three kinds of knowledge.
Metacognition and Study Strategies Research shows that explicitly teaching study strategies in content courses improves learning.
Rote memorization is the usual learning strategy—and often the only strategy—employed by high school students when they go to college Nist, But students who have learned only the strategy of reading to pass a quiz on the information will not go beyond this strategy.
Students need to know they have choices about which strategies to employ in different contexts. And students who learn study skills in one course need to apply study strategies in other contexts than where they first learned it.
Students need to monitor their application of study strategies. Metacognitive awareness of their learning processes is as important as their monitoring of their learning of the course content.
Monitoring Problems with Learning When students monitor their learning, they can become aware of potential problems.
Nickerson, Perkins, and Smith in The Teaching of Thinking have categorized several types of problems with learning.
Problems with Process; Making errors in encoding, operations, and goals: Errors in Encoding Missing important data or not separating relevant from irrelevant data. For example, some literature students will base their interpretation of a poem on just the first stanza.
Errors in Operations Failing to select the right subskills to apply. For example, when proofreading, some students will just read to see if it sounds right, rather than making separatepasses that check for fragments, subject-verb misagreement, and other errors they have learned from experience they are likely to make.
Failing to divide a task into subparts. For example, some math students will jump right to what they think is the final calculation to get the desired answer.
Errors in Goal Seeking Misrepresenting the task. For example, students in a speech communication class instead of doing the assigned task of analyzing and classifying group communication strategies used in their group discussions will just write a narrative of who said what.
Not understanding the criteria to apply. For example, when asked to evaluate the support provided for the major claim of an article, students will explain why they liked the article rather than apply appropriate evaluative criteria.
Problems with Cognitive Load Too many subskills necessary to do a task.V.
Metacognition and Motivation. Metacognition affects motivation because it affects attribution and self-efficacy. When students get results on tests and grades on assignments (especially unexpected results such as failures), they perform a mental causal search to .
Direct and Indirect Methods of Assessment In order to gather evidence of student learning, assessment efforts are categorized as direct and indirect measures. Midterm Self Assessment: Midterm Assessment - Reflective Essay 2: Midterm Self-Assessment I used to believe that I was one of the few unfortunate people that were not blessed with writing a well thought out paper in a brief amount of time.
COMMUNICATIONS STYLE INVENTORY This is an informal survey, designed to determine how you usually act in everyday related situations. The idea is to get a clear description of how you see yourself. Guide for writing influential Self Reflective Essays with easy to understand instructions and compelling tips.
This article includes 5 powerful steps and 8 incredible tips for helping you to write better Self Reflective essays.
A self reflective essay is a personal opinion piece from the author. It. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Grading. Craig L. Scanlan, EdD, RRT.
What is Assessment? To many teachers (and students), “assessment” simply means giving students tests .