His father, Jakob Freud —a wool merchant, had two sons, Emanuel — and Philipp —by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jewsand although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study. Freud's half brothers emigrated to ManchesterEngland, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. He proved an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in with honors.
Oral stage The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stagespanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, and from Theories of personality freuds psychoanalytic oral exploration of his or her environment, i.
The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully developed, and, since the infant has no personality identityevery action is based upon the pleasure principle. Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage; two factors contribute to its formation: Yet, weaning increases the infant's self-awareness that he or she does not control the environment, and thus learns of delayed gratificationwhich leads to the formation of the capacities for independence awareness of the limits of the self and trust behaviors leading to gratification.
Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixationcharacterised by passivity, gullibility, immaturity, unrealistic optimismwhich is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation.
In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality.
In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior. Anal stage The second stage of psychosexual development is the anal stagespanning from the age of eighteen months to three years, wherein the infant's erogenous zone changes from the mouth the upper digestive tract to the anus the lower digestive tractwhile the ego formation continues.
Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, and results in conflict between the id demanding immediate gratification and the ego demanding delayed gratification in eliminating bodily wastes, and handling related activities e.
The style of parenting influences the resolution of the id—ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic.
The ideal resolution of the id—ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult.
Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personalitya person too concerned with neatness and order.
If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder.
If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of selfbecause it was the parents' will, and not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training. Phallic stage The third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stagespanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the child's genitalia are his or her primary erogenous zone.
It is in this third infantile development stage that children become aware of their bodies, the bodies of other children, and the bodies of their parents; they gratify physical curiosity by undressing and exploring each other and their genitals, and so learn the physical sexual differences between "male" and "female" and the gender differences between "boy" and "girl".
In the phallic stage, a boy's decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complexhis son—father competition for possession of mother.
This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Oedipuswho unwittingly killed his father, Laiusand sexually possessed his mother, Jocasta. Analogously, in the phallic stage, a girl's decisive psychosexual experience is the Electra complexher daughter—mother competition for psychosexual possession of father.
This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Electrawho plotted matricidal revenge with Orestesher brother, against Clytemnestratheir mother, and Aegisthustheir stepfather, for their murder of Agamemnontheir father, cf.
Electraby Sophocles. Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnonby Frederic Leightonc.
Despite mother being the parent who primarily gratifies the child's desires, the child begins forming a discrete sexual identity — "boy", "girl" — that alters the dynamics of the parent and child relationship; the parents become the focus of infantile libidinal energy.
The boy focuses his libido sexual desire upon his mother, and focuses jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father — because it is he who sleeps with mother. To facilitate uniting him with his mother, the boy's id wants to kill father as did Oedipusbut the ego, pragmatically based upon the reality principleknows that the father is the stronger of the two males competing to possess the one female.
Nevertheless, the boy remains ambivalent about his father's place in the family, which is manifested as fear of castration by the physically greater father; the fear is an irrational, subconscious manifestation of the infantile Id.
Whereas boys develop castration anxietygirls develop penis envy that is rooted in anatomic fact: As a result, the girl redirects her desire for sexual union upon father; thus, she progresses towards heterosexual femininity that culminates in bearing a child who replaces the absent penis.
Moreover, after the phallic stage, the girl's psychosexual development includes transferring her primary erogenous zone from the infantile clitoris to the adult vagina. Freud thus considered a girl's Oedipal conflict to be more emotionally intense than that of a boy, potentially resulting in a submissive woman of insecure personality.
In both sexes, defense mechanisms provide transitory resolutions of the conflict between the drives of the Id and the drives of the Ego.
The first defense mechanism is repressionthe blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet it does not resolve the Id—Ego conflict. The second defense mechanism is Identificationby which the child incorporates, to his or her ego, the personality characteristics of the same-sex parent; in so adapting, the boy diminishes his castration anxietybecause his likeness to father protects him from father's wrath as a rival for mother; by so adapting, the girl facilitates identifying with mother, who understands that, in being females, neither of them possesses a penis, and thus they are not antagonists.
Unresolved psychosexual competition for the opposite-sex parent might produce a phallic-stage fixation leading a girl to become a woman who continually strives to dominate men viz.
In a boy, a phallic-stage fixation might lead him to become an aggressive, over-ambitious, vain man. Therefore, the satisfactory parental handling and resolution of the Oedipus complex and of the Electra complex are most important in developing the infantile super-ego, because, by identifying with a parent, the child internalizes moralitythereby, choosing to comply with societal rules, rather than having to reflexively comply in fear of punishment.
Latency stage The fourth stage of psychosexual development is the latency stage that spans from the age of six years until pubertywherein the child consolidates the character habits he or she developed in the three, earlier stages of psychologic and sexual development.
Whether or not the child has successfully resolved the Oedipal conflictthe instinctual drives of the id are inaccessible to the Ego, because his or her defense mechanisms repressed them during the phallic stage.
Hence, because said drives are latent hidden and gratification is delayed — unlike during the preceding oral, anal, and phallic stages — the child must derive the pleasure of gratification from secondary process-thinking that directs the libidinal drives towards external activities, such as schooling, friendships, hobbies, etc.
Any neuroses established during the fourth, latent stage, of psychosexual development might derive from the inadequate resolution either of the Oedipus conflict or of the Ego's failure to direct his or her energies towards socially acceptable activities.
Genital stage The fifth stage of psychosexual development is the genital stage that spans puberty through adult life, and thus represents most of a person's life; its purpose is the psychological detachment and independence from the parents.
The genital stage affords the person the ability to confront and resolve his or her remaining psychosexual childhood conflicts. As in the phallic stage, the genital stage is centered upon the genitalia, but the sexuality is consensual and adult, rather than solitary and infantile.
The psychological difference between the phallic and genital stages is that the ego is established in the latter; the person's concern shifts from primary-drive gratification instinct to applying secondary process-thinking to gratify desire symbolically and intellectually by means of friendships, a love relationship, family and adult responsibilities.
Scientific[ edit ] A usual criticism of the scientific experimental validity of the Freudian psychology theory of human psychosexual development is that Sigmund Freud — was personally fixated upon human sexuality ; therefore, he favored defining human development with a normative theory of psychologic and sexual development.Published: Mon, 5 Dec This assignment is going to compare and contrast Freud’s psychosexual stages of development with Erikson’s psychosocial stage model.
Psychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is mostly established by the age of lausannecongress2018.com experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life.
In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness.
Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect.
Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious. In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.
Each stage – the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital – is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive.
Sigmund Freud ‘s psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego. This “structural theory” of personality places great importance on how conflicts among .