Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Blockwas discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD.
In addition to the shorter form, the Chicago Manual and Turabian identify rules for using the Latin abbreviation "Ibid. Latin abbreviations Shortened form When citing a source you have already noted in full, use a shorter form so your reader knows what earlier source you are referring to.
Same work and author; only source by that author If the work and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author's last name and page reference: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 Two or more works by same author If you are using two or more works by that author, indicate which of the works you are citing.
Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference. Princeton University Press,8. Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell, Two authors with the same last name If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened reference.
Latin abbreviations When a note refers to the same work as the previous note, you can use "ibid.
This is acceptable even if several pages of text separate the two notes. If the pages are the same, no number is necessary.
Example notes Note that the first source is given a shortened form in note 3, then referred to with "ibid. Houghton-Mifflin,Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use.
Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. Important Notice: There is a new edition of the MLA Handbook (8th edition – ). Many textbooks, websites, MLA tools, and even the citation listings in the sources themselves in . Learn From Our Innovative Blog. Our blog features current and innovative topics to keep you up to speed on citing and writing.
Whether you’re an educator, student, or someone who lives and breathes citations (it’s not as uncommon as you might think!), our blog features new and exciting articles to . ALWD Citation Manual; eBooks. PDF; ePub; Mobi; WHAT AND WHY? Introduction; Purposes of Legal Citation; Law Journal Writing; ABBREVIATIONS & OMISSIONS USED IN CITATIONS.
Words in Case Names; Case Histories; Omissions in Case Names; Reporters & Courts; States; Months;.
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Although LEO is affiliated with the Write Place (the writing center at St. Cloud State University), LEO does not offer online tutoring, answer questions about grammar or punctuation, or give feedback about your writing or papers.
Creating in-text citations using the eighth edition The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited.